Thursday, December 22, 2011

Owning a Windows Domain with Metasploit's Incognito and Persistence Modules

Found via @armitagehacker on Twitter.

This video shows a demo that uses Armitage (Metasploit) to compromise a Windows Domain Controler.

The attacker gains access to an unpatched Windows web server  by exploiting the classic MS08-067. On the web server, the attacker is able to obtain the cached domain credentials of an administrator  and use them to compromise the domain controller.

The attacker also makes use of the persistence module to keep a foothold on the compromised system.

Monday, December 12, 2011

Auditing logs: tracing e-mail transactions

Every good admin knows that analyzing the log files plays a key role in not only security, but also in the day-to-day IT operations. Who does not read the logs... (sarcasm)?

One of the situations I have to face really often is investigate e-mail problems such: delays, e-mail not arriving, bounces, user account does not exist, etc.. or, simply, whether a user sent an e-mail or not.

If reading the logs created by Postfix or Sendmail is a pain 'per se', trying to understand what happened in a scenario with multiple intermediate servers is a nightmare. Therefore, doing log management is key to succeed (in this particular situation or any other that involves large quantities of data).

There is nothing fancy in my setup. I am just using a centralized syslog server to collect all the raw logs created by the e-mail servers. Then, we can trace the problem from one single place, that is good, but trying to understand what happened is still a pain.  We still cannot see the forest for the trees.

I have come up with a Python script ( ) that parses Postfix and Sendmail logs. It searches all the e-mail transactions that match the  message id, the sender, the recipient and the date.

The output is self-explanatory:

# cat /var/log/all |  ./ -l -  -f ^  -i

transaction: E324DA41CA
date:   Dec  5 09:28:42
to:     recipent='' , relay='[]:25', status='sent (250 2.0.0 pB58ShMJ024096 Message accepted for delivery)'
host:   smtp1

In this example, it only outputs one unique transaction but in a scenario with multiple servers we should have a listing of all the transactions and all the servers involved, giving us the full picture.

Since it is time and CPU consuming, I am planning to modify this script to treat all the raw logs and dump all this information to a search engine like elasticsearch, making the troubleshooting faster while still having the raw logs in case I need to go deeper.